resulting in a negative return known as the "quasi-fiscal cost". Results are mixed, since they depend on specific features of the models. Developed countries authorities adopted extra expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, which led to the appreciation of currencies of some emerging markets. In a pure flexible exchange rate regime or floating exchange rate regime, the central bank does not intervene in the exchange rate dynamics; hence the exchange rate is determined by the market. In the case of Japan, forex reserves began their ascent a decade earlier, shortly after the Plaza Accord in 1985, and were primarily used as a tool to weaken the surging yen.
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Exorbitant Privilege: The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System. In the middle of 2012, reserves reached 71 of GDP. Since the amount of foreign reserves available to defend a weak currency (a currency in low demand) is limited, a currency crisis or devaluation could be the end result. Retrieved 15 February 2013. . Also, an le otto diverse tipologie di candele forex increase in reserves occurred when commercial openness increased (part of the process known as globalization ). However, the process of obtaining resources from the Fund is not automatic, which can cause problematic delays especially when markets are stressed.
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